School Papers

1. and/or continuous degeneration. This can cause problems

1.      Microbiome: The microbiome is all of the genetic material presents within a microbiota. It can also be called the metagenome of the microbiota.

2.      Metazoans: Mitochondrial eukaryotes that consist of multiple cells are called metazoan animals. Nowadays Metazoa includes all animals with distinguished tissues, such as muscles and nerves.  They have evolved from the protists, which they did relatively 700 million years ago.

3.      Hydrophobia: Hydrophobia is a severe disease where people have an unreasonably strong fear of water. Hydrophobia should be cared for as soon as possible. Hydrophobia can also be called rabies. This disease occurs, especially in canine species. These animals are able to transfer the disease to humans and other animals.

4.      Pathogenic: A pathogen is everything that is able to produce diseases. This term is used to describe an infectious force such as the bacterium, prion, a fungus, a virus protozoa or other microorganisms.

5.      Co-morbid: With comorbidity one or more extra disorder or disease occurs in combination with a primary disorder or disease. So in short, a comorbidity is every extra disease or disorder, which can be a mental or behavioral disorder.

6.      Neurodegenerative diseases: A neurodegenerative disease is a term used for a variety of conditions which mainly affect neurons in the human brain. Neurons are the most important pieces of the nervous system. When neurons die or get damaged, the body is able to replace them. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. Neurodegenerative diseases are debilitating and incurable conditions that could lead to the death of nerve cells and/or continuous degeneration. This can cause problems with the mental function (dementias) or with movement (ataxias).

7.      Gastrointestinal (GI) pathology: Gastrointestinal pathology is part of the term surgical pathology. GI works with the characterization and diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of accessory organs and the digestive tract, such as the pancreas and liver.

8.      Vagus nerve: The vagus nerve provides nerve fibers for the heart, throat (pharynx), intestinal tract, windpipe (trachea), esophagus, voice box (larynx), and lungs. The vagus nerve also gives sensory information back from the voice box, tongue, ears, and throat to the brain. The vagus nerve belongs to the cranial nerves and is the tenth. The vagus nerve originates in one specific part of the brainstem, and the vagus nerve goes all the way down to the colon. Complete interruption of the vagus nerve could cause syndromes.

9.      Neurochemical: Neurochemicals are peptides or small organic molecules that cooperate in neural activity. The functions of neurochemicals are studied in the science of neurochemistry.

10.  Immunologic response: The immune response is a system in which your body defends itself and recognizes viruses, bacteria, and substances that appear harmful and foreign. An immune response originates from the immune system, where the body answers to the threat if these substances by activating antigens.

11.  Monocolonization: Colonization is the possession of territory or a habitat by an ecological niche or a biological community by only one population of species. Monocolonization is almost the same as colonization, but with monocolonization the colonization is singular, so only one species is colonized.

12.  The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is the central stress response system in the human body. The HPA axis is the tangling of the endocrine system and central nervous system. The HPA also controls cortisol levels and other important stress-related hormones. The HPA axis is also seen as the body’s energy regulator because it is responsible for regulating the nervous system activity and many hormones in the human body. The HPA axis also influences the digestive system and the immune system.

13.  Probiotic: A probiotic are bacteria and yeasts, which are good for the health of humans, and then particularly for the human digestive system. People usually see probiotics as germs that cause diseases, which isn’t true.

14.  Pharmaceutical antidepressant citalopram: Pharmaceutical antidepressant citalopram is a medicine that is used to treat depression. This antidepressant resides in a group of medicines known as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These medicines stimulate certain chemical in the human brain.

15.  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI): A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is a drug that is described to treat depression. The SSRIs affect the chemicals, which the nerves in the brain use to send information to another nerve somewhere in the human body.

16.  Interoceptive: Interoception consists of all signals within the body. Interoception is important for a human’s motivation, well-being, and embodiment. Interoception is the process, in which the human body accesses and receives signals. Interoceptive awareness has been more defined as the representation of the sensations of the human body.

17.  Somatosensory regions: The somatosensory is the part of the brain that processes from our own environment. The somatosensory system belongs to the sensory system. The somatosensory system is the part of the sensory system, which is involved with the perception of pain, position, movement, touch, temperature, vibration and pressure. These perceptions occur from the joints, the fascia, the muscles and the skin.

18.  Neurodevelopmental disorders: Neurodevelopmental disorders are mental disorders, which belong to a certain group of disorders. With these disorders, there is a disturbance during the development stage of the central nervous system, which could lead to a developmental brain dysfunction. Examples of this are learning problems, neuropsychiatric problems, communication problems or an impaired motor function. This disorder can also affect a person’s emotions. These problems are mostly only visible in later life-stages.

19.  Etiologies:  Etiology means the cause of a disease, but it can also mean the science that manages the cause of a disease. The word etiology derives from the Greek word etio-, which means ‘causation’ and the Greek word -ology, which refers to the scientific study of something. When a doctor tries to find the cause of a disease, they are trying to inspect the etiology of the disease.

20.  Serum metabolites: The term metabolome refers to all the small-molecule chemicals, which can be found within biological samples. These biological samples can be one cell, but also an entire organism. The small molecule chemicals inside a metabolome may exist of both endogenous metabolites and exogenous chemicals. Endogenous metabolites are metabolites that are produced by the nature of an organism. Exogenous chemicals aren’t produced in the nature of an organism.

21.  Macrophages: Macrophages are large white blood cells, which play a significant part in our immune system. The literal meaning of the word ‘macrophage’ is ‘big eater’, which derives from the Greek words ‘makro’, which means big, and ‘phagein’, which means eat. Macrophages are made in response to accumulating damage, to dead cells or to an infection. Macrophages are specialized, large cells, which recognize and destroy certain cells, the target cells. Macrophages also protect the body against intruders. Macrophages originate from white blood cells called monocytes. These white blood cells are produced by stem cells in our own bone marrow. Monocytes then move through the bloodstream and when the monocytes leave the blood, they evolve into macrophages. Macrophages are able to live for months. In this time they patrol our cells and organs and keep them clean from invaders. Macrophages can change their form into different structures in order to fight a number of different invaders and microbes. Causing macrophages to be our first line of defense against any form of infection.

22.  Neutrophils: Neutrophils are white blood cells, which play an important role in the human innate immune system. They have been established within our bloodstream. When there is an infection, the neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond and migrate to the infection, where they kill the intruding microbes by releasing specific enzymes. 

23.  Dendritic cells: Dendritic cells are special types of cells, which are major regulators of the immune system, known under the group of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The prime function of the dendritic cells is to produce cells and antigens. The word ‘dendritic’ literally means ‘branched like a tree.’ The word ‘dendritic’ comes from the Greek “dendron”, which means tree.

24.  Cytokine: Cytokines are cell signaling molecules that help cells to move toward sites of infection, trauma of inflammation and they help to communicate the immune response. This term is derived from the Greek word ‘cyto’, which means cell and the Greek word ‘kinos’, which means movement.Cytokines fall under a large group of consistent of peptides, proteins or glycoproteins, which are made by certain cells of the immune system. Cytokines are signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and immunity within the human body. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. The term ‘cytokine’ literally means ‘cell movement’. 

25.  Ischemic injury: The term ischemia is used when the blood supply to tissues is restricted. This restriction causes a shortage of glucose and oxygen, which are needed to keep the tissue alive. Ischemic injuries are caused by a restricting in the blood supply and can be very catastrophic.

26.  Etiological agent: The microorganisms that cause diseases in humans are called etiologic agents. Examples of etiologic agents are parasites, viruses, bacterial toxins, rickettsiae, bacteria, protozoans, and fungi. Etiologic agents are also called infectious agents.

27.  Commensal microbes: The word commensalism refers to a relationship between two different organisms, where neither of them benefits from the other or where they harm one another. That is why it is called a neutral relationship. Commensal microbiota consists out of the microorganisms that are exposed to an external environment, such as the skin.

28.  Parenchyma: The term parenchyma is used to describe functional tissue in animals and plants. This tissue performing a function/tasks within the plants and animals. In animals, the term parenchyma refers to the cells, which have an important role in performing the biological functions of the organs within the human body. In plants, the term parenchyma refers to a specific type tissue, which has thin cell walls. These tissues have the ability to divide and grow things within plants.

29.  Afferent nerves:  An afferent nerve fiber is the axon of a sensory neuron. An afferent nerve is a nerve formed by a bundle of these axons. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The afferent nerve transports electrical impulses derived from tissues to the spinal cord.

30.  Toxin-encoding viruses: Toxin-encoding viruses are viruses that encode toxins within the human cells.

31.  Mucocutaneous infections: Mucous membranes support the growth of a normal microbiota that is preventing infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. In most cases, microbial infections begin at wounds or breaks on the mucous membranes or in the skin, where the microbial barriers are now broken. Mucocutaneous infections are infections that are caused by the breaking of the microbial barriers.

32.  Mitochondrial polymorphisms: Polymorphisms are different types of individuals or a number of genetic variation among the members of one kind of species. When there is a continuous variation in the genetics of the individuals,  there could emerge two or more distinct forms of one species.  Mitochondrial polymorphisms are different types of individuals or genetic variations among the mitochondria.

33.  Human hepatocytes: Human hepatocytes are cells of the functional tissue of the human liver. Hepatocytes are involved in a lot of critical processes within the liver.

34.  Alkylation damage: By alkylation is an alkyl group transferred between two molecules. By alkylation damage is this process disrupted.

35.  Gut epithelium: The gut epithelium is made up of cells that form the surface of both the large and small intestinal lumen. The gut epithelium has two significant functions. One is protected the intestines against harmful substances and the other is absorbing substances that are helpful for the intestines. 

36.  Neoplastic lesions: Neoplasm means the abnormal growth of tissue. When this becomes a mass is it called a tumor. Lesions are almost all abnormal change of tissue or organs caused by an injury or disease. Neoplastic lesions are abnormal change and growth of tissue, which could be caused by a disease or injury and can an become a tumor.

37.  Cytosolic receptor: Receptors are protein molecules that receive signals from outside the cell. When receptors receive these signals, they make a response to them. Cytosolic receptors are found within the cytoplasm of the cells.

38.  Proinflammatory immune response: Proinflammatory immune response are immune responses that are able to promote inflammation. Inflammation is a response that is a reaction to the damage of living tissue. This response is meant to defend the organism against injury and infection by other organisms.

39.  Intestinal tumorigenesis: Tumorigenesis is are a term used to describe the formation of cancer. By tumorigenesis are normal cells mutated into cancer cells. Intestinal tumorigenesis is the forming of cancer cells within the intestine.

40.  Homeostasis: Homeostasis is a system, which regulates an organism’s internal environment and maintains a stable condition for an organism’s characteristics. The homeostasis of an organism could adjust to conditions that are better/optimal for the survival of the species. Homeostasis means literally keeping things together and come from the Greek word ‘homeo’ which means similar and from the Greek word ‘stasis’ which means stable. 

41.  Somatic cells: Somatic cells are body cells or plant cells that form an organism’s body. Somatic cells are all cells except germ cells, gametes, undifferentiated stem cells or gametocytes.

42.  Steatosis: Steatosis is a process which reflects the removal of fat and the degradation of normal synthesizing processes.

43.  Shotgun metagenomics: Metagenomics is a study where genetic material is recovered from environmental samples. Recent a new form of metagenomics has emerged, shotgun metagenomics. Shotgun metagenomics uses all neutral parts of the genes of an organism, most of the time an entire community of species, to sequences. This technique is then able to reveal the hidden diversity of microscopic life, which could make it possible for us to understand the entire world of living beings.   

44.  Firmicutes: Firmicutes are a group of bacteria, of which the organisms have a Gram-positive cell wall structure. Almost all Firmicutes can make endospores, which are able to survive extreme tough conditions. That why firmicutes can be found in a variety of different environments.  

45.  Adipose tissue inflammation: Adipose is the connective tissue, which can be found in the spaces between tissues and organs, but also in bone marrow, under the skin or around vital organs. Adipose provides the metabolic and structural support within organisms. Adipose tissue is mostly made up of fat cells (adipose cells), which are able to sustain the structural network of fibers within organisms. Inflammation is a response that is a reaction to the damage of living tissue. This response is meant to defend the organism against injury and infection by other organisms. Adipose tissue inflammation is the protection of adipose tissues against infections and injury caused by other organisms. Adipose tissue inflammation is also essential for the remodeling and expansion of healthy adipose tissue.