School Papers

A. together his plan for the “ARPANET”, the


The idea of internet originated from the concept of wide
area networking in several computer science laboratories since the development
of electronic computers starts at 1950s.

early and first computers had a central processing unit and remote terminals.
Even though the development of communicating a computer to another over a long
distance has started, it was limited. One of the first connections was a
computer connected directly to terminal by individual users in the same place
or location. For example, in a same building. This network connection
eventually known as local area network or LAN, and later on wide area networks
or WAN emerged during 1950s as a network that is larger than the LAN. It is
finally becoming established during 1960s.



The History of Internet

B.1. Concepts and ARPANET

J.C.R. Licklider of MIT discussed about social interaction
that could be enabled through networking in August 1962. He called the concept
“Galactic Network”, where he envisioned a globally interconnected computer
through access data which everyone could use. Licklider himself was the first
head of the computer research program at DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency which is an agency of the United State Department of Defense
who is responsible for development of military technologies.

In July 1961, Leonard Kleinrock from MIT published a paper
about packet switching theory, and also a book with the same topic in 1964. He persuaded
that the feasibility of communication using packets instead of circuits, which
was the major grounds of computer networking. The next year in 1965, a
researcher from MIT Lawrence G. Roberts worked together with Thomas Merill and
connected the TX-2 computer in Massachusetts to the Q-32 in California with a
low speed dial-up telephone line creating the first wide-area computer network
ever built even though in a small scale. Kleinrock’s theory of packet switching
was confirmed and the computers could work together well.

Roberts went to DARPA to develop the concept of
computer network and put together his plan for the “ARPANET”, the project to
realize Licklider’s concept of interconnected network system. They published it
in 1967. The first ARPANET link was commenced between University of California
and Standfor Research Institute. The message they sent was “LOGIN”, but it
crashed and only sent the first two letters. By the end of 1969, they have
tried using four computer host connected together to the ARPANET, and the
network itself grew steady in the 1970s. More networks from several
universities merged like University of Hawaii’s ALOHAnet and the Royal Radar
Establishment in Norway, and it became more difficult for