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Chapter that the study captured through its qualitative

Chapter
6

Conclusion

 

This
chapter attempts to summarise and provide an overview of the diverse strands
that emerged in the preceding chapters. These chapters individually and
collectively present a story of the war affected people in North and East in
post war Sri Lanka, their day to day challenges, perceptions, concerns, their
aspirations about future. This study is primality based on perceptions and experiences
of war affected communities in the above regions.  Hence the conclusions and the analysis
presented in this study are also based on these perceptions. In order to
intelligibly comprehend the experiences and perceptions of the affected
communities   the analysis of the study
is informed by the theretical and conceptual framework on the literature
review  chapter. This framewosk shaped
the way the data sources are assese to gauge progress with regard to people’s
security.

 This chapter summarises three types of
findings that have been explicitly  
discussed in the previous chapters. First, perceptions, experinces and
opinions of the war affected people. Second , dissatisfaction and nuanced
anomalies that the study captured through its qualitative research and the
third is overall patterns of various aspects of human security that
researcher  have identified through the
analysis of the qualitative data. Instead of making recommendations ,
researcher prefers present the analysis , so that substantive insights in to
the way that the Sri Lankan reconciliation and security of people process is
progressing.

The
most evident and commonly shared opinion of the war affected actors  in the North and East was that they
benefitted from the end of war in 2009. They recognised government
infrastructure development drive and commended it.  However the most disturbing significant
finding is that post war reconciliation and people’s security process continues
to breed suspicion in communities especially among resettling  Tamil communities. This is due to Tamils
being suspicious of government’s intentions due to ever growing marginalisation
feeling escalated by post war developments in a number of spheres including
political. As already mentioned in many studies marginalisation in North is
perceived as main obstacle  to the
freedom and security of resettling communities. 
Therefore the government’s peace through development does not acceptable
by majority of Tamil and Muslim people in the regions as this further
aggravates vulnerability among the vulnerable communities. Hence it is natural
for the majority of the minority community to see the governement’s approach
ignoring their economic, political and cultural expectations, therefore people
find these activities  has not made any
significant change in their wellbeing and security. In this context, it would
not be an over exaggeration  to claim that
post war plans demonstrates ‘one step forward and two steps back’ . Following
paragraphs discuss the findings in some detail.

 

Undoubtedly
, the end of the was has improved the physical security of the war affected
communiites who lived vulnerable lives for decades under immense and threats. A
majority of the participants in the Northern and Eastern provinces attribute
their present sense of security to the absence of war. However, they emphasised
the insecurity in their day life which arises from multiple factors and
multiple violence. Heavy militarization, sexual abuses, harassments,  domestic violence, small arm violence, heavy
use of alcohol and drugs are considered as new threats to their present and
future generation.

Further
their feeling of insecurity was not only directly related to the action or
inaction of the security forces but also to their own condition as a society
that had undergone many years of multiple displacement and repeated tragedies.
In areas where the military provides security , there is also marked absence of
men due to death or migration and  a high
number of female headed households. A combinations of these situation
contributes to the degeneration of society where women are increasingly
vulnerable.  The traditional an cultural
norms have been disrupted  and women are
sometimes forced in to exploitative sexual relationship in order to  secure personal, familial and  economic security. It was also  highlighted that low population has a
potential to weak Tamil people’s political voice and also would make them to
step down from first minority group to second minority.   

The
military intervention in community life operates at three levels . At one level
there is the nominal presence of the military, where it performs typical
military functions. The purpose of their presence is to maintain assemblecce of
force to prevent any insurrection either perceived or real. At another level
they are involved in humanitarian and community activities. Women appreciate
their assistance in constructing houses and assistances in delivering drinking
water and transporting the sick from remote areas where they have been
resettled. The third level of military presence is what poses a problem in
terms of these communities to regaining normalcy. The ever presence military
inference makes it resemble and occupying force that has quasi permanent and
times unwelcome presence . This level of military intervention has resulted in
the acquisition and cultivation of the land, commercial activities such as
marketing their products and services and even leaisure and tourism activities
where the military runs hospitality operations. This makes the military not
only perceived  but in actual fact a competitor
for both for both resources and opportunities. Resettling people struggling to
establish themselves , therefore see the military as interlopers. The military
and its network of people from Southern part of the country access the best
scarce resources . They also deprive the local communities from reaping the
benefits of the resources allocated them for improving their condition. Although
resettling communities believe that they are marvel in these  infrastructure developments, yet they are
unable to relate them in to actual living reality. Some of them have also been
intermittently involved as voluntary or involuntary labour in this development
work with little material benefit to themselves.

 

Further,
the findings also reveals that the local people are unhappy abd unsatisfied ,
because they don’t find this development has positive impact on their lives. It
is generally presumed that development of roads serve to connect damaged socio
economic networks. However when they are completely bereft  of resources or networks that facilitate
upward social mobility, road development does not provide the expected
connectivity. The infrastructure development are yet to make a difference to their
daily lives. It has no impact on their wellbeing in terms of health, education
or access to other opportunities.

Under
these circumstance , CSOs in resettling communities expressed mixed feelings on
their economic conditions.  They are
filled with anxiety and uncertainty for their future in general.  This is mainly due to the economic
development that created uneven ground ,making the clear distinction between
the conditions of communities that lived under government control and as
opposed to those lived under LTTE’ control for three decades.

In
the absence of substantial assistance for 
micro level needs such as land , housing agriculture , farming and
animal husbandry and other livelihood activities and access to markets , all
returning communities find prospects for resettlement is very challenging and
painful.

The
assessment of attitudes of the communities in the post war shows that most of
them view their present conditions with deep scepticism and bewilderment . This
is especially evident among those grass root level CSOs. Similarly in the
assessment of trust nd confidence  in institutions
of the state , interviewees expressed the district  administration and political authority
wanting in terms of being able to deliver on their expectations.  The failure to deal with the  The most trusted of all state instituions