School Papers

Computer-aided One of the reason contributing to this

Computer-aided services have grown in number
and signif-icance in proportion to the rapid growth of Internet adoption.
E-service growth, also known as web-based self-service, has fur-ther magnified
the importance of service sector roles in modern economies (Calisir &
Gumussoy, 2008; Heinze & Hu, 2006). Companies face a number of challenges
in choosing and implementing the right software and technology solutions in
order to better serve their needs and support their business endeavors. This
has become particularly problematic in recent years as companies attempt to
leverage existing practices, systems and resources across the Web. Critical to
success in this environment is to find an integrated, robust e-business
solution that allows a company to leverage existing applications, rapidly adapt
to the unique needs of the business, and continually evolve as business
requirements change over time (F. Casati, D.
Georgakopoulos, M.-C. Shan (Eds.): TES 2001).

1.1           
Problem
Statement

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Related to the current situation of service
provider they face huge problem in creating unified API to connect several
Systems of related Filed together.

One of the reason contributing to this is the
existence of large verity ,different systems and APIs, and availability of
these System DBs online (M. Schulz 2002). Based on a research there is many reasons
of failure, for example data availability, reliability and felexibility.

 

1.2           
Objectives

            This Research objectives is related
to the issue of the common causes of failure of an e-service .

1.3.1       
Study the causes of e-service
failure in sudan.

1.3.2       
To develop a system that handles
those causes.

1.3.3       
To develop
android application that allow client to find specific service.

1.3.4       
To implement
Crowdsourcing in the new system.

1.3.5       
To develop a mechanism that will allow the synchronization of
data between the server and the mobile devices.

1.3.6       
Assurance of service quality and
interoperability.

1.3           
Scope

The Research  is focused on
finding a way to implement e-service via crowdsourcing  system by:

1.4.1       
Analyzing and designing of the
system according to the business requirement and related systems and taking
into account the common causes of failure.

1.4.2       
Designing the core modules of the system (Service Consumer, Service
Provider, Administration).

1.4.3       
Designing administration module to manage system, add and edit core
data e.g. (service list, manage users, service data).

1.4.4       
Designing android application for clients to allow them to
find  the service based on location.

1.4.5       
Designing android application for Service provider to receive request
from client and replay if the service is avialable or not.

 

 

 

1.4           
Research
significant

The benefits of implement e-service via crowdsourcing will be shown
from different perspectives:

       
i.           
Service
Consumer: esay way to find a service (less time, near location).

     
ii.           
Service
Provider: increased revenue and the rating of the his service.

1.5           
Thesis
Layout:

Chapter one gives introduction about the research, defining the
problem statement, objectives, scope and methodology. Chapter two represents
background, literature review and related work. Chapter
three contains methodology. The chapter four contains implementation and
result. Chapter five is contains conclusion and recommendations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.   
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE
REVIEW

 

2. 1        
Introduction:

This chapter represent the academic literature of the research are
we will the definition of the E-servive, SOA, Crowdsourcing the causes of E-service failure.

2.2           
 E-Service

2.2.1   
Introduction

Electronic  service, short as
e-service, is ageneral term that refers to services over the information –
communication technologies. The term e-service has many applications and can be
found in many disciplines. The two dominant application areas of e-services are
E-business (or e-commerce) and E-government (or non-commerce).Computer Language
Company (2009) defines e-services as an umbrella term for services on the
Internet. E-services include 
e-commerce  transaction  services 
for  handling  online 
orders,  application  hosting 
by  application  service 
providers  (ASPs)  and 
any  processing  capability 
that  is  obtainable 
on  the  Web. 
Chun  Hai  (2007) argues 
that  e-services are services on
the Internet where it is possible to make apurchase and sale transaction,
unlike traditional websites, where 
only  have  descriptive 
information  available.  Similar 
Zeithaml and Bitner  (2003)
defined  e-service as web services
deliveredthrough the Internet. Wilson (1998) mentioned that ,an e-service is an
activity or series of activities that takes place during the interaction
between a provider and acustomer through an electronic channel”.

Taherdoost et al.(2014) used e-services characteristics and summarized
as follows:  intangibility,  process nature, homogeneous, inseparability,
non-ownership, inter action, self-service, non-rival.  Methodical 
instructions  (Finance Ministry
of  Slovak  Republic, 2006) defines electronic services
as “a service provided electronically by means of information and
communication tools”.

2.2.2    E-Service Characteristics

Many researchers have evaluted the service and e-service Characteristics as :-

                               
i.           
Intangibility
is defined as “impalpable and not corporeal.”

                             
ii.           
Process
nature is defined as “the manner in which the outcome is transferred to
customer”.

                           
iii.           
Homogeneous
is defined as “variablility in the quality and essence of a particular
service”.

                           
iv.           
Inseparability
is defined as “Regarding the physical separation of provider and user,
e-services are highly flexible because place is not a property attributable to
network software”.

                             
v.           
Perishabiltiy
is defined as “is relatively stand for production capacity and not service
itself”.

                           
vi.           
Non-ownership
in service enviroment the ownership of services are not transfer.

                         
vii.           
Interaction
refers to the interplay between frims and customers.

                       
viii.           
Self-service
is defined as “service in which there is no direct assestance from or
interaction with human service agent”.

                           
ix.           
Non-rival
means that “consumption can occurs simultaneously without reducing the other
consumer utility”.

2.2.3    Advantage and barriers of using e-service

For better delivery of services electronic mehtod is
supposed to lead, improved interaction with business and industry, citizen
authorizatation through access to information, or more efficient government
management.

The
benefits of utilizing e-services inculde:-

                                 
i.           
Better delivery of
services.

                               
ii.           
Substantail saving.

                             
iii.           
Advance user
interaction.

                             
iv.           
Effiecent
information management.

                               
v.           
Rasied
accountability.

                             
vi.           
Increased
transparency.

                           
vii.           
Cost reduction.

                         
viii.           
24 hours a day and
7 days a week

Vassilakis
et al. indentfied e-service barriers in five different areas; Legislative
barries, Administrative barries, Technological barries, User culture barries,
Social barries.

2.3           
   Service
Oriented Architecture (SOA)?

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is the new
methodology in recent years for constructing application procedure of
distributed system, which can transmit application procedure to end-user by
using “service”.

There are some
basic SOA entities for operation 1 , shown on Fig.
1. :

                               
i.           
Service Consumer: Service consumer can be
end-user, application or other service consumer. It will be looking for
suitable service in service registry, then confirm the location of service,
bind service, and perform the function of service. Meanwhile, when service
consumer performs service, it will transmit request in accordance with the
contract.

                             
ii.           
Service Provider: Service provider is an entity
with network-addressable. It can accept and perform the request from service
consumer, and service provider can make request by using mainframe, service or
other software. However, to enable service consumer access easily, service
provider needs to publish its own contract on service broker.

                           
iii.           
Service Broker: Service broker is similar to
service dictionary, which has UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and
Integration) function, responsible for receiving and storing the contract from
service provider, then provides the contract to service consumer which need it.

                           
iv.           
Service Contract: Service contract explains the
interaction between service consumer and service provider. Both service request
and service response have concrete defined format. Service contract may rule
required terms for pre- and post-event, these are using for explaining that
service can be performed only under some certain conditions.

 

2.4           
   What is Crowdsourcing?

Crowdsourcing is an emerging distributed
problem-solving model based on the combination of human and machine
computation. The term ‘crowdsourcing’ was jointly coined by Howe and Robinson
in 2006 (Howe, 2006). According to the widely accepted definition presented in
the article, crowdsourcing is the act of an organisation outsourcing their work
to an undefined, networked labour using an open call for participation.

The term
‘Crowdsourcing’ was first widely accepted in 2006.Jeff Howe used the term in
his article ‘The Rise of Crowdsourcing’, which was published in Wired (Howe,
2006b). In a companion blog post (Howe, 2006a) to this article, the term was
defined explicitly:

“Crowdsourcing
represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed
by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network
of people in the form of an open call.”

Brabham (2013) proposed four different
crowdsourcing approaches:

                   
i.           
Knowledge Discovery & Management – for
information management problems where an organization mobilizes a crowd to find
and assemble information. Ideal for creating collective resources

                 
ii.           
Distributed Human Intelligence Tasking – for
information management problems where an organization has a set of information
in hand and mobilizes a crowd to process or analyze the information. Ideal for
processing large data sets that computers cannot easily do .

               
iii.           
Broadcast Search – for ideation problems where
an organization mobilizes a crowd to come up with a solution to a problem that
has an objective, provable right answer. Ideal for scientific problem solving .

               
iv.           
Peer-Vetted Creative Production – for ideation
problems where an organization mobilizes a crowd to come up with a solution to
a problem which has an answer that is subjective or dependent on public
support. Ideal for design, aesthetic, or policy problems.

2.5           
   Related Works

2.5.1   
Dawaey

2.5.1.1 
Introduction

Dawaey
application  has been developed that allow
consumer  to quickly search for drugs
that available in the pharmacies from their own smartphone .

2.5.1.2 
Dawaey  is (structurally) consisting of four modules:

       
i.           
Front-end: a program that is developed to be
installed into a handheld device (Android and IOS device ) that allow consumer
to search about specific drug.

      ii.           
Back-end: a server side program that gather
information coming from front-end users and redistribute them into a database
system to be stored.

    iii.           
Database: Databases engine that stores and
index information.

   
iv.           
Web interface: which is a web reporting and
editing application that handles reporting, basic data entry, system
administration and data export/import.

2.5.1.3 Dawaey  System
drawbacks

The Dawaey system faces many
problems:

                   
i.           
The avialability of Database Engine online.

                 
ii.           
About 65% of pharmacies here in sudan didn’t
have system.

               
iii.           
Difficult to integrate with different Database
Engine.

               
iv.           
There is no security mechanism used in the
Dawaey to secure the data.

 

2.5.2  
Crowdsourcing application in marketing activities

2.5.2.1 
Facebook

Facebook is a social networking site launched
in 2004. Since 2008 it used crowdsourcing to create different language versions
of its site. According to company, employing wisdom of crowds is offering the
advantage of providing site versions that are more compatible with local
cultures (Hosaka, 2008).

2.5.2.2 Minted

Minted is an
American e-commerce company based in San Francisco, California, that
crowd-sources design from independent artists and sells the designs as “fine
products such as stationery, wall art, and décor for the home, holidays, and
occasions. Minted was an early pioneer of crowdsourcing product design and has
held open art and graphic design challenges monthly since 2008” (Minted, 2013).

2.5.2.3 Clickadvisor

clickadvisor
provides a range of crowdsourcing based research services by using “consumers
as brand advisors who review products, decisions and concepts – and offer
advice on how they can be improved”. Results of consumer research carried out
by Clickadvisor can be used for identifying unmet needs of customers, for
informing marketing decisions and to optimize innovation concepts and marketing
campaign ideas (Clickadvisor, 2013).

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