School Papers

DNA are identical in all humans. The sequence

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), is found inside of a cell’s nucleus, and almost every living organism has DNA. A small amount of DNA can also be found inside of the mitochondria, where it’s then referred to as mitochondrial DNA. There are four chemical bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Human DNA has approximately three billion bases, and more than ninety-nine of those bases are identical in all humans. The sequence is important in a DNA structure, just like the order of the alphabet is for writing. The order in DNA determines the information available for taking care and growing an organism. Base pairs are when DNA pairs up with each other. Adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine. Sugar and phosphate molecules are attached to each base, therefore creating a nucleotide when put all together. Nucleotides come in a pair and are in the shape of a double helix. The double helix shape is almost like a ladder, with base pairs forming the ladder steps and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the side pieces of the ladder. Something important to know about DNA is that it can replicate. Each strand of DNA is like a pattern, being replicated exactly the same as the pre-existing DNA. DNA has many functions, but is known for its main role of storing long-term information. Another major function in DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code. Amino acids play an important role in healing tissue in the muscles, bones, skin and hairs. Many scientists contributed to the discovery and study of DNA, but some popular scientists were James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins. Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins used x-rays to study DNA and their properties starting all the way back in 1953, when DNA was discovered. ┬áJames Watson and Francis Crick were the people behind discovering DNA. They also used x-rays to discover DNA. In 1962, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins earned the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their outrageous discovery. Rosalind Franklin died 4 years after they were given the Nobel Prize, and her success in her studies and discoveries on DNA did not get acknowledged until many years later. Her x-ray photos were fundamental in the studies of DNA, and for unlocking the many secrets of DNA, and to help find the building blocks that make DNA up. The reason humans look identical or similar to their relatives, sibling, parents, or family members is because of DNA. The genes in your DNA are similar to your parents DNA. So, if your mom has the same color eyes as you, you can assume it’s due to your DNAs genes. The same rules apply to hair color, skin tone, height, body proportions, and much more. Without the matching genes, you’d look completely different than your parents. Conclusively, DNA plays a very important role in creating who you are as a person. DNA is found in the nucleus of cells, and has four chemical bases; adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine. They each make up DNA, along with phosphate molecules and deoxyribose molecules, which are the ‘backbone’ to the structure. DNA is known for storing long term information, and encoding the sequence of amino acid residue in proteins, using the genetic code. The scientists that discovered DNA were James Watson and Francis Crick. Scientists that contributed to the study were Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. We as humans look like what we look like because of DNA, and it makes us who we are.