School Papers

Do covers about 1% of earth’s surface and




Do you believe humans are like a virus

To the planet earth?






Supervised By:

Sanar Fawzi

 Date: 16/1/2018

Prepared By:

Zainab Nazar

Software department
1st stage












ozone layer




( Deforestation , Industrialization )










We live in a modern
world where tremendous advances have been made in technology, medicine and many
other areas. These are positive aspects, but the whole thing involves some
negative sides. How many times have you considered what needs to happen to our environment
so we can maintain that lifestyle?

The earth is
polluted by the population, more and more trees are felled, houses are built
and our planet is threatened by the global warming. Besides the earth are also
humans and animals in danger because of many points. Some of them can be
changed by us and some of them not, and in this text I will explain what we are
doing is wrong and what we are doing with the earth to live up to our standard
of living.






The term population has its origin the Latin word
populous, meaning people. The human population is the total number of living
humans on earth.

Our global human population, 7.6 billion in 2017 and it keeps growing,
overpopulation is when a population group passes the point at which the

Environment can no longer supply the resources required to support the group’s
needs. human population increases continuously since the 20th
century, it’s the most forceful environmental issues that causes

Biodiversity, waste management, global warming, pollution, intensive
farming technics, habitat loss and most importantly the loss of fresh water
because over 75% of earth is covered in water, 97.5% are oceans which is salty
also 2.5% is freshwater which is divided into icefall and ice caps and 30%
remaining is into rivers and wetland, most of the freshwater unapproachable or
too impure. According to a report in 2009 U.N. group states that “by 2030, nearly half of the worlds people will be living in areas of
intense water shortage” the
planet is in the middle of called by the U.N. “Global water Crises”. Freshwater
is the most important limited resource that cannot sate everyone’s need for it.
Freshwater ecosystems are limited it covers about 1% of earth’s surface and
they are already in danger because of pollution and other threats.



Pollution is an unwanted change caused in air, water and soils by humans
and human activities.

It is defined as the contamination of air, water and food in such manner
as to cause real or potential harm to human health or well-being or to damage
the non-human nature.

The more people there are, the more resources they use, and the more
pollution that results.


Types of pollution:


·       Air pollution

·       Soil pollution

·       Water pollution

·       Noise pollution

·       Radiation pollution

·       Thermal pollution








·       Energy to heat and cool our homes
and buildings and to run cars and equipment.


·       Waste takes on many forms from
sewage to trash, some waste is spewed into the atmosphere or into water ways
and so the result is air and water pollution, air pollution is due to increased
fossil fuel emissions from vehicles.


·       Fossil fuels for automobiles
require all humans to develop alternative forms of transportation( trucks,
buses, aircraft and personal car)


·       Burning coal for electricity will
continue to increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.


·       Power plant(factories)


·       Soil erosion includes using
pesticides and fertilizer, altering ecosystems in negative ways, we are losing
soil by building, farming and stripping forests therefore soil is becoming
depleted and desertification is occurred.


major source of air pollution comes from non-stoichiometric combustion,
dissociation of Nitrogen oxides (NO) and impurities in the fuel of air.



The emission of
concern is:


1.   Carbon monoxide (CO): is a product
of in complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel (CnHn). Most of CO comes from the
exhaust of vehicles.


2.   Hydro carbon (HC): comes from
exhaust gases, it is different for each gasoline depending on the original
fuel, it may reach the atmosphere to form photochemical smog which causes
odorant and irritants.


3.    Oxides of Nitrogen (NO): exhaust gases contain
NO in most of its constituent and trace amount of NO2 and other nitrogen-oxygen
NO2 is a very undesirable emission, especially released of NO react with
atmosphere to form Ozone (O3), and it’s one of the major causes of
photochemical smog.


4.   Photo chemical smog: is one of the
primary causes of photochemical reaction of automobile exhaust and atmosphere
air in the presence of sunlight and it produces Ozone and its harmful for
humans and vegetable plants.


5.   Sulfur oxides (SO): many fuel used
in engine contain sulfur in its exhaust which contribute in acid rain




6.   Lead and phosphorous: lead was a
major gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead) was effectively used to increase the
gasoline, octane number which allowed more efficient engine. However the
resulting lead engine exhaust was highly poisonous pollutant, also small amount
of phosphorous are emitted, these comes from impurities in the air and also in


7.   Solids particles: (particulates)
small solid particulates are present in air in a great number, and at times it
constitutes a serious pollution problem, particulates are sometimes classified
as viable (capable of living), or non-viable. Examples of viable like bacteria
and spores. Non-viable like substances as organic compounds, dust and sea salt.



·       Many particulates affect
respiratory system more effectively than air pollutant


·       Particulates increase atmospheric
turbidity and reduce visibility


And with
using all those resources and so on, more pollution results.


·      The respiratory system

The major target of air pollutants
is the respiratory system. Air and entrained pollutants enter the body
through the throat and nasal cavities and pass to the lungs through the trachea
and bronchia.

Entrained pollutant particles can
be prevented from entering the lung by the action of ting hairs called (cilia)
that sweep mucus out through the throat and nose.

The bronchial cilia can be
paralyzed by inhaled smoke enhancing the synergistic effect between smoking and
air pollution. And in the lungs, the air moves through bronchial tubes to the
alveoli (small air sack) in which oxygen from the lungs is transferred to the

·      Effect of Carbon Monoxide (CO)

The effect of CO inhalation on
human health is directly proportional to the quantity of CO bound to
hemoglobin. Oxygen is transported in the blood as oxyhemoglobin (HBO2), in the
red blood cells. The O2 is removed for cell respiration and the regenerated
hemoglobin is available for more oxygen transport. CO reduces the
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood by combining with hemoglobin and forming
carboxyhemoglobin (HBCO). Hemoglobin that is tied up as (HBCO) can be
regenerated and is not available for oxygen transport for the life of that
particular red blood cell. In this way (CO) effectively poisons the hemoglobin oxygen
transport system, and so effects the human health.



Average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere, which can
contribute to changes in global climate patterns, it can be defined as changes
in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity,
oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry and ecological systems)
that may alter the capacity of the earth to sustain life. Global warming
decreases the productivity it will cost a lot to the humans. Experts give a
warning that climate change and economic productivity will decrease the
amounts, it will affect the human health and even they will face the death.
When the human body faces a lot of heat it will lose the body’s water and with
the decrease of blood pressure. The normal human temperature is 37C and the
heat is up to 39.5C it will be too dangerous for humans and other living,
nowadays we all use air conditioner and even sometimes it can’t cool the air
for us, brian kohler   the director of health, safety and sustainably
says that “as the produce of air conditioner increases it is also increases the
use of energy and the electric fossil energy and so the atmosphere will be
warmer” and also added that it is not a solution, actually it brings more

of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere:


·      Increased photosynthesis and
productivity by the earth’s vegetation.


·      Decrease plant production also
means decreased respiration.


·      Elevated CO2 means an increase in
global temperature – the greenhouse effect


·      Increased average surface
temperature of the earth by about 0.6degree + 0.2degree C.


·      This increase in earths average
temperature is called Global warming


·      A warmer earth may lead to changes
in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level and a wide range of impacts on
plants, wildlife and humans.







The ozone layer is a thin, fragile shield that contains relatively high concentration
of Ozone. It shields the entire earth from much of the harmful UV radiation
that comes from the sun, damage in the Ozone layer means harmful rays entering
to the atmosphere.


·      In the 1970s, the scientists
discovered that the ozone layer is being depleted.




of Ozone depletion on Humans:


effect of ozone depletion is the increased UV-B radiation reaching earth

on humans:

1.  Sunburn

2.  Sun-damaged skin

3.  Cataracts

4.  Snow blindness

5.  Skin cancer







Effects of Ozone depletion on


on environment:

1.  Global warming

2.  Climate change

3.  Crop and forest damage

4.  Infections and skin diseases on



1.  Less ocean plankton

2.  Less fish harvest





ACID RAIN. Section 6


rain is rain that is more acidic than normal, it releases toxic metals into
forests that stunts the growth of trees, acid rains spread and damage involves
weather, chemistry, soil and the life cycles of plants and animals on the land
and from acid in the water.

·      Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
oxides (NO), are the major sources of acid rain.






Acid rain is quietly destroying our planet.


·      Acid rain causes expansive damage
to buildings, statues, bridges and structural materials of marble, stone and




·       Acid rain causes death of the




·       On animals that lives in water




·      Acid rain effects on human health


The sulfur dioxide
(SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) gases,

Causes respiratory
diseases like (asthma, chronic, bronchiectasis and etc…)




     Tiny particles cause difficulty in
breathing for humans and animals & also lead to permanent lung damage






term “environment” means total surroundings of an organism, it can be
living and non-living things.

quality of human life directly related to the quality of environment.

Human activities
on environment including:

Deforestation means removing a large scale of forest, or an area of trees in order to
clear the area for human development.

Also, industrialization
have impact on our planet:

·       Dangerous chemicals entering
underground water

·       Ecological imbalance

·       Release of pollutant gases

·       Release of radioactive rays
causing health problems

·       Reduced vegetation




In this
article, we talked about human impact on earth and the negativity of their
activities on the environment which leads humans, animals and other living
things to death and it’s all because of their activities which they think that
will make their lives easier which is not, it leads all of them to death so
humans are actually viruses to the earth trying to live peacefully in a harmful
planet. We kill trees to make papers and other things to use in our daily life
and we don’t realize that killing them means killing ourselves by catching up
with diseases, inhaling dusty air and drinking polluted water,



“There is enough in the world for everyone’s need,
but not enough for everyone’s greed”

–       Mahatma Gandhi





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