School Papers

Fiber bridges, where its light weight and high

Fiber
reinforced composite materials (FRP Fiber, Reinforced Polymer) from the last
century since its inception in 40s, has been widely used in aviation,
aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile, chemical, medical and mechanical industry.
In recent years, FRP has become a new type of structural material for civil
engineering.

Because of the ability of FRP to withstand
difficult environments, it is used in marine environments and chemical
industries where corrosion is the biggest problem of steel causing a high
maintenance cost. In addition, FRP used a lot in bridges, where its light
weight and high strength is the biggest advantage for it. Besides that, FRP
used a lot in strengthening structures elements such as beam, column, and
bridge’s decks, where the first time to use FRP in strengthening was in 1980
for strength concrete structures using Glass or Carbon FRP sheets (Fig. 1-4).
Besides the aforementioned applications, the application of FRP profiles has
been received increasingly attention by the engineering community.In
1982 Miyun bridge in Beijing china was the first GFRP bridge, in addition to a
lot of pedestrian and cycles bridges. In 1997, Denmark Kolding city built the
world’s first all composite railway bridge (Fig. 1-5). The span length was 38m,
and the connections were bolted type. The whole bridge weighs less than 10t,
but it can withstand the load of 50t (Daniel, Marek
and Krzysztof, 2000). Another
application of FRP is the cables in suspension bridges, where its light weight,
high strength, corrosion resistance, and damping ratio fitting well with this
application rather than steel cables. In addition, these advantages are
suitable for the requirements of offshore structures and oil industry. (Meier, 1987) in his study he
showed that the span of the cable stayed bridge across the strait of Gibraltar
could be triple by using carbon fiber reinforced plastic, in addition to the
benefits of light weight and corrosion resistance. Aberfeldy
Bridge in 1997 is the first suspension bridge completely made of
composite material, it is 113 m long, and the main span length is 63 m, making
it the longest span composite bridge in the world. The framework and the
columns made of ACCS system and the cables were from Aramid fibers.

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1.4  FRP trusses

Light weight, fast and easy installation, offer
stiffness to a structure, and carry heavy loads, these are what distinguishes
trusses over solid web members, making it a renowned structure in the 19th
century. Trusses used a lot in bridges, house roofs, towers, garages, and
factories (Hizam,
Manalo and Karunasena, 2013).

In addition, trusses can benefit from
the advantages of the unidirectional properties of the FRP as trusses carry
only axial loads, making it the best choice for trusses.

In
the United States, MBCS Company has made a GFRP roof truss used for water
reservoir at Darvel, Scotland to solve the corrosion problem of the steel (Gilby, 1998). (Kostopoulos,
Markopoulos, Vlachos, Katerelos, Galiotis, Tsiknias, Zacharopoulos, Karalekas,
Chronis and Kalomallos, 2005) developed a
pultruded GFRP hollow box profiles to assemble lightweight truss bridge, the
bridge span is 11.6 m, 4m width, 1.2m height, 30t load capacity, and its weight
is only 13.5 t. In China, Chongqing City, “Mao Yisheng public bridge”
is the first FRP truss bridge, 20m span, truss deck width 2.0m, and a total
height is 3.3m. The static and dynamic performance of the bridge was studied by
Feng Peng et al., at Tsinghua University, and the finite element analysis was
carried out by using SAP 2000.

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