School Papers

MOTIVATIONThe contributors and affective factors for business production.

MOTIVATIONThe staff of any industry are key resources to that industry’s success. Human asset in the 21st century is considered the most important asset of any company (Hafiza, Shah, Jamsheed & Zaman, 2011). Employees were considered just an input to the production of the business. A research referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932, changed this way of thinking (Dickson, 1973). The thoughts that employees are just assets have been changed when the study concluded that employees are not just assets, they are the main contributors and affective factors for business production. Employees are not just motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). To define motivation, we can say it is an aspect that is approached by different work levels, from senior to junior levels, in the workplace as employees up to all other workers and people in the organization. But, it is the manager role to start the motivation process and open the door for employees to add their inputs on what does really motivates them and it should be as a strategy to achieve business goals through their main assets which are people. Garderner and Lambert (1972), defined motivation as it is about the moving employees toward doing the job and achieving the goal through rewards.   Nnabuife in 2009 , define motivation as the internal or external driving force that produces the willingness to perform an act to a conclusive end.Most employees need motivation to feel good about their jobs and perform optimally. Some employees are money motivated while others find recognition and rewards personally motivating. Motivation levels within the workplace have a direct impact on employee productivity. Workers who are motivated and excited about their jobs carry out their responsibilities to the best of their ability and production numbers increase as a result. An incentive is a motivating influence that is designed to drive behavior and motivate employees to be produce quality work. Employers use several types of incentives to increase production numbers. Employee incentives come in a variety of forms including paid time off, bonuses, cash and travel perks. Incentives drive employee motivation because they offer workers more to strive for than a regular paycheck. Many employees need recognition from their employers to produce quality work. Recognition and employee reward systems identify employees who perform their jobs well. Acknowledging a job well done makes employees feel good and encourages them to do good things. Employers recognize workers by tracking progress and providing feedback about how they have improved over time. Public recognition is also a motivating factor that drives worker productivity. Some employees are motivated through feeling a sense of accomplishment and achievement for meeting personal and professional goals. Many workers are self-disciplined and self-motivated. Incentive and rewards have little effect on employees who feel motivated only when they are confident in their abilities and personally identify with their role within the organization. These individuals perform productively for the sake of the personal challenge their work provides. There are several ways employers can motivate employees and drive worker productivity. Because different factors influence workers in different ways, employers can utilize motivation strategies that encompass several techniques.      THEORIES 1. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryThe Two-Factor Theory of motivation is also known as motivation-hygiene theory or dual-factor theory was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s where he found 2 factors that influence employee satisfaction and motivation.1. Motivator Factors – Motivator factor are factors that lead to motivation and satisfaction employees to work harder. Examples : enjoying the work, feeling recognised and career progression.2. Hygiene Factors – Hygiene factor are factors that can lead to dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are not present. Examples : benefits, salary, company policies, relationships with managers and co-workers.According to Herzberg’s he found that motivator and hygiene factors both influenced motivation, they appeared to work completely independently of each other.While motivator factors increased employee satisfaction and motivation, the absence of these factors didn’t necessarily cause dissatisfaction. Likewise, the presence of hygiene factors didn’t appear to increase satisfaction and motivation but their absence caused an increase in dissatisfaction . 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsThe Hierarchy of Needs theory was coined by the famous psychologist Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”in 1943.The theory in short tells individuals’ most basic needs must be met before they become motivated to achieve their higher level of needs.The hierarchy consists of 5 levels:1. Physiological – Physiological needs are those needs for a person to survive, such as water, food and shelter.2. Safety – including financial and personal security and health and well being.3. Love/belonging – the need for family, friends, relationship.4. Esteem – the need to be respected by others and also to be confident in what ever they do.5. Self-actualisation – the desire to achieve everything possible,and become the most that you can be.According to hierarchy of needs theory by Maslow, you must be in good health, secure and safe with meaningful confidence and relationships before you are able to be the most that you are supposed to be.    3. Hawthorne EffectHenry A. Landsberger  was the first person to describe The Hawthorne Effect in 1950 where he noticed tendency for some people to perform better and work harder when they were being observed by a group of researchers.The Hawthorne Effect , the name came up after a series of social experiments was done on the influence of productivity and physical conditions at Western Electric’s factory at Hawthorne, Chicago during 1930’s.The researchers who were doing this experiment where they changed a number of physical conditions during the course of the experiments including lighting, breaks, working hours . In all cases, employee productivity increased when a change was made. The researchers after the experiment concluded that employees became motivated to work harder as the response to the attention given to them, rather than the actual physical changes that are made by themselves.          TRIGENTWebsite : www.trigent.comFounded 1993Headquarters Boston, MA (US)Size 1000 to 3500 employeesType CompanyPrivateIndustryIT Services  Trigent is a  privately held,  professional IT services company with its headquarters in U.S. in the greater Boston area and its Indian  headquarters is situated at Bangalore. Trigent is an SEI CMM Level  4 company and is ISO 9001:2008 TickIT certified.Trigent’s operating model is to conduct sales,  customer  relationships  and  front – end  consulting  (e.g.,  business case, requirements, architectures) onsite with   clients and perform the detail design, development, integration, testing and quality assurance offshore at our world class development  and  support  center  in  Bangalore.    Trigent  is  focused  on  the  customers’  who is market facing business processes  such as product  development, research,  marketing,  sales  and  customer  service.  They  develop,  implement   and  integrate systems; and  leverage  applications/technologies  such  as  CRM,  BI  and  reporting, collaboration,  content  management,  e-commerce,  SaaS,  Web 2.0,  SOA,  .Net,  J2EE  and  SQL  to  give  our  clients  a  competitive  advantage.Trigents  mission is to  delight there  customers by  providing  excellence  in  IT  services, value and results. They  have built  a  world  class  and  competitive  team  with  challenging , rewarding and  growth  oriented  work.  Our  values  include  integrity,  respect  for  the  individual,  open  and  honest  communication,  partnering,  innovation  and  excellence. Trigent at present have around 3500 employees which includes diploid employees where they have clients like Microsoft, Oracle, Sun Tec, Cognizant, Ametek, Linkedin, Accenture, NetApp, Yahoo, Citrix, Wipro, Infosys, CapGemini etc..,In their office at Bangalore they do both staffing and software development. In which 59 employees are in the recruitment team and 220 in software development. Some of the employees need motivation to feel good about their performance and jobs . Some employees are  highly motivated by the money factor where as others find rewards and recognition motivating them . Motivation levels within the workplace will have a direct impact on the employee productivity. Trigent wanted to check their motivation level of there employees to check their areas of motivation and also to know how they can improve the weaker aspect.


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