School Papers

The generation rates of waste for both Iraq

The production Rates of solid waste are subject to certain
variables, such as population density, types and levels of economic activity,
and the income level of the population (Al-Ansari, 2013). In 2010 United Nation
(2010) established that the generated rate of solid waste in low income countries
was (0.9 – 0.4) kg/(capita. day), whilst the generated rates for middle and
high-income countries were (0.5 – 1.1) and (1.1 – 5.07) kg/(capita. day) correspondingly
(Al-Ansari, 2013).

The generated rate of solid waste in Sulaymaniyah
Governorate in 2009 was 0.69 kg/(capita· day) (Sulaymaniyah Directory of Municipality).
This value is considered very low and is unsatisfactory, compared with the generation
rates of waste for both Iraq as a whole and for Baghdad (the capital of Iraq),
which were (1.01 and 1.47) kg/(capita· day) respectively. This rate is also low
in comparison with the international standard rate of 1.5 kg/(capita· day)
(Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works, 2009). The figures for the
generation of municipality solid waste per capita for Sulaymaniyah city would place
it as middle income in relation to the data of the Department of Economic and
Social Affairs of the UN in 2010 (Al-Ansari, 2013; Iraqi Ministry of
Municipalities and Public Works, 2009). The whole population of Sulaymaniyah
Governorate in  2016 was 2084492  inhabitants (Kurdistan Region statistics
office) based on the population growth rate of 2.99%. According to (World Bank,
2015), the annual population growth of Iraq is 2.5% for years 2010-2014. The
quantity of municipality solid waste generated in Sulaymaniyah Governorate in
2016 was 604107 tonnes (Sulaymaniyah directory of municipality). Generation
rate of municipality solid waste in 2016 was 0.794 kg/(capita· day) in the
Sulaymaniyah city depending on calculation methods which are illustrated below.
The rate for Sulaymaniyah city as a function of population density. Depended on
the information cited in the records of the Sulaymaniyah statistics office, an
attempt was made to determine the future expected of municipality solid waste
in Sulaymaniyah city for the year 2032. This was achieved through using series
of Equations using two methods as follow:

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