School Papers

The killed over 2,500 people in various parts

The term environment is defined in section 2(a) of the
Environment Protection Act (1986) of India as comprising the air, land and
water; and it is the inter-relationship that exists among and between water,
air, land, human, plants, microorganisms, and property. Environmental
issues are one of the predominant challenges of the twenty-first century. These
encompass global warming, climate change, natural resources, including ozone
depletion, pollution, toxic wastes, loss of biodiversity, acid rain,
deforestation, agro-chemicals and poverty to enumerate a few concerns (Martens, 2014; Tietenberg and Lewis 2016). These
problems have also been intensified by rapid industrialization, urbanization,
and population explosion. In a study carried out by the United Nations of the
most environmentally polluted countries, India’s ranking was a dismal seventh
in the world (United Nations Environment Programme, 2011). It was revealed that
although 17% of deaths in developed countries are attributable to environmental
factors, in developing countries a massive 25% of all deaths are due to such
factors (Narain, 2012). Environmental factors such as deforestation, land use,
and water resource management lead to estimated 42% of malaria infections
occurring in Africa and Asia (World Health Organisation,
2010). A severe environmental and nuclear disaster in recorded human
history was the earthquake followed by the tsunami and nuclear accident at
Fukushima prefecture of Japan on the eleventh of March, 2011 (Morino et al., 2011). The devastating
earthquake in Nepal in 2015 took the lives of more than 9,000 people, and the
heat wave in the same year killed over 2,500 people in various parts of India,
with Andhra Pradesh and Telangana being the worst affected, as the country
faced record high temperatures (Goda et al., 2015).
Significant degradation of land and water resources has been caused by
industrialisation and overexploitation of the country’s natural resources.

Consequential environmental challenges
that have local, regional, and global effects are observed as a result of India’s
vigorous economic development propelled by rising industrialisation. In a
developing country like India, it is pertinent to focus on the relationship
between social issues and persistent destruction of the environment. Media can play
an important role in enhancing awareness of natural environment and it can also
be employed in informing people about environmental degradation as well as existing
environmental laws and regulations. In 1986, the National Policy on Education
made environmental education an integral part of curriculum while declaring
that all sections of society need to be informed about their environmental
rights. Furthermore, the Supreme Court of India issued directives for including
environmental education in the National Curriculum Framework, and also
requiring that all undergraduate students study environmental science. Being
mega-diverse, India accounts for 7-8% of global recorded species despite consisting
of 2.4% of total land area (Ministry of Environment and Forests, n. d.).
India
is the seventh largest country and has a geographical area of around 3.2
million hectares (mha) out of which 147 mha land is degraded. Considering developmental
goals of the country the issue of air pollution, as a result of emission from
vehicular, domestic, and industrial activities, is a major concern along with
increasing challenges of greenhouse gas emissions.  In India, the probable drivers of environmental degradation are rising
population, poverty, unsuitable technology, improper consumption choices,
intensive agriculture and unplanned urbanisation resulting in differences in
the relation between ecosystem and people (National Environment Policy, 2006).
Institutional failures lead to lack of enforcement of environmental policies. Absence
of clarity on resource usage induces constraints on environmental conservation
resulting in natural degradation. These policy failures may be a result of sources such as,
government allocating subsidies through national fiscal instruments for
resource utilisation, consequently providing an incentive for unrestrained
natural resource exploitation (NEP, 2006). Increased use of fossil fuels as the
main source of energy is concerning for the ecologists and climatologists as
this has the potential for  generating
global climatic changes via greenhouse gas emissions, leading to disastrous
ecological consequences (National
Research Council, 2011). 

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Environmental concern
has grown into one of the chief issues world-wide. Increasing public awareness
regarding environmental degradation, including pressures from environmentalist,
NGOs and the government has resulted in business incorporating green and
environmental-friendly marketing in their organisations. Besides, traditional
marketing has led to multiple environmental problems such as wastage, pollution,
and deforestation among others. Increasing consumers, exaggerated advertising,
and unhealthy marketing tactics for customer attraction has exacerbated the
issue. 

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