School Papers

The potential to create this unique secondary metabolite,

The 1950s, modern
antibiotics and medical supplies are undoubtedly considered one of the greatest
benefits of human well-being. During the next 10-15 years, the average life
expectancy of the population has increased significantly. Many tumors and viral
diseases become easy to control, and some are lost. In addition to these
brilliant discoveries in recent decades, studies of antibiotics are fraught
with recent scientific and economic problems(Berdy et al 2012).

Of course,
antibiotics make an important contribution to improving the health and
well-being of humans and animals (Carl and Pascal, 2006). Endophytes are
important as research and application of plant pathology because in some cases
plants suffering from endophytes show greater resistance to plant pathogens,
especially fungi and nematodes. There are several mechanisms by which
endophytic fungi can interact with pathogens (Zabalgogeazcoa 2008).

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Many types of
microbial populations such as bacteria and fungi bind endophytes to the
internal tissues of the plant. The term “endophyte” was created by De
Bary (1866). It invades the survival of microorganisms in infected plant
tissues without disturbing the host plant (Schulz and Boyle 2006). Almost all
plants have been infected with one or more endophytes (Petrini et al., 1992).
These microorganisms produce growth-promoting metabolites, insects and
repellents, anti-phytopathogenic antimicrobials, protection agents under stress
conditions and the like (Rya et al., 2007, Rai et al., 2014a, b). They also
retain the potential to create this unique secondary metabolite, which can be
used in the pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. As a result,
scientists are interested in the biological exploration of endophytic microbial
communities of plants from various ecosystems. Actinomyces is Gram-positive,
usually a filamentous bacterium, and is the main gateway in the bacterial field(Ludwig and Klenk 2005).

Endophytic
Streptomyces is the most widely used group in the pharmaceutical and
agro-industrial industry (Joseph et al 2012). Genetic gene genes encoding
polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) are often
recorded, and in a few reports an endomorphism of 21-66%, 45-82% and 33-100% is
found. Bacteria are of type I PKS (PKS-I), type II PKS (PKS-II) and NRPS
(Matsumoto & Takahashi 2017).

We investigated the
constructive interaction of endophysial actinomycetes with plants

A study of living
space. These natural actinomycetes are an important source of new biologically
active compounds and many research groups are involved in their biological
activity and industrial applications. This review summarizes the advances in
endophytic actinomycetes in northern India, including their diversity and
broad-spectrum biological activity.

 

 

Natural products:

For hundreds of years, this drug has been made entirely from
natural sources and consists of herbs (Paul M. Dewick, 2014). Natural products
have become a rich source of major molecules of drug discovery due to their
high chemical diversity and many unique biological activities

Etc. 2014). The world is endowed with rich medicinal plants.
The type and amount of plants that have therapeutic properties are quite
striking. It is estimated that from lichens to towering trees, about 70,000
plants are used as medicinal plants. Herbs provide raw materials for the separation
or synthesis of conventional medicines. Due to the presence of many different
chemical compounds of diverse composition, medicinal plants have therapeutic
properties and are found to be secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts
of these plants . (Narayan Das Parajapati & Dr.U.Kumar,
2003).

 

Medicinal plants:

Of the 258,650 higher plants reported worldwide, more than
10% are used to treat sick communities (Shinwari 2010).

 

Plants with medicinal properties and effects should have
higher levels of health. (Akerele et al. 1991). Medicinal plants are used to
separate and define bioactive metabolites. (Nisa et al., 2015).

 

Medicinal plants have improved symptoms due to the various
composite chemical compositions of secondary metabolites in different parts of
the plant (Iyer and Devi, 2008).

 

 

INDO-PAK Medicinal plants:

·        
Cassia fistula commonly
called as Amaltas

·        
Trigonella
foenum-graecum commonly called as Methi

·        
Carica papaya
commonly called as Papeeta

·        
Dioscorea
floribunda commonly called as Ratalo

·        
Citrullus
colocynthis commonly known as  Korhtumma

·        
Ferula asafetida
commonly known as Hing

·        
Caesalpinia Crista
commonly known as Letkanta

·        
Smilax ornate
commonly known as Ashba

·        
Styrax benzoin
commonly known as LOBAN

·        
Crocus
sativus  commonly known as Zafran

·        
Azadirachta
indica commonly known as Neem

·        
Ocimum
tenuiflorum commonly known as Tulsi

Indo-Pak Medicinal Plants common
uses:

Well known therapeutic properties (Ahmad & Beg, 2001) are commonly available from commonly used medicinal plants. The World Health Organization reports that 80% of the world’s population is heavily dependent on traditional medicine, many of which use plant extracts or their active ingredients (WHO, 1993).

Neem (Azadirachta
indica)  may be India’s
most useful traditional medicinal plant. Each part of the neem tree has some
medicinal properties and is commercially advantageous. (Biswas et al., 2002).
(Fujiwara et al., 1982), antimicrobial activity (Devakumar and Sukh Dev, 1996),
antimalarial (Jones et al., 1994), antipyretic effect (David et al., 1969) ,
Spermicides (Sharma et al., 1959), and anti-inflammatory and immune immune
properties (Nat et al., 1991).

Cassia fistula (Amaltas)  have been used to treat skin problems such
as vitiligo, wigs, liver disease, tubercles, wounds and diabetes (Alam et al.,
1990, Asolkar et al., 1992). It also contains antioxidant activity
(Luximon-Ramma & Bahorun et al., 2002). According to cytological studies,
the antitumor activity of Cassia fistulae seed extract suggests that a
reduction in mitogenic activity may be the dominant mechanism for tumorigenesis
(Gupta et al., 2000). Cassia fistula extract is active against many bacteria,
namely E. coli, B. subtilis, B.subtilis, M. smegmatis, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
P. aeruginosa and Perumal et al., 1998), antifungal activity (Duraipandiyan and
Ignacimuthu 2007), the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the methanol
extract of Cassia obtusiloba, and found that the extract is more deadly to the
larvae of Anopheles stephens (Govindarajan, Jebanesan et al. (Pradeep, Mohan et
al., 2007) provide scientific evidence for cassia fistulas Prevention and
Treatment of Liver Disease Cassia fistula plants may contain heavy metal
elements such as Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, F and K2O, the concentration
of which depends on soil mineral status (Biswas Cassia fistula enhances humoral
immunity (Nafisa and Shahana et al al., 2008). (Sartorelli, Andrade Samanta et
al., 2007) Shows lower toxicity than conventional drugs.

(Ammal, George et al., 2007) described the efficacy of
cassia fistula extract against the inhibition of cholesterol growth in growth
experiments using cassia extract in a high cholesterol solution. It shows that
the crystallization of the inhibition.

(Bahorun, Neergheen et al., 2005) demonstrated
anti-cancer effects of Cassia fistulae. Cassia fistula suppresses the
production of inflammatory mediators “Leukotriene” is a mechanism
involved in antirheumatic therapy that enhances the traditional use of antirheumatics
in Pakistan (Sunil Kumar and Müller, 1998). The antidiabetic effect of cassia
seed extract (Esposito Avella, Diaz et al., 1991) examined the fistula.

 

Dioscorea floribunda(Ratalo), another medicinal plant, all
used for vegetative propagation (Bammi, RK et al., 1982). Diosgenin is a
component of Dioscorea floribunda (Hoyer et al., 1975). The effect of Dioscorea
floribunda is based on the action of various steroidal saponins (potato
diosgenin and aglycone).

(Dias,
Correia et al., 2007) shows tuberous apogenin vasorelaxation in endothelial
cells isolated from the superior mesenteric artery in rats. It has an
anti-inflammatory effect on the extract and therefore becomes a very useful
topical ingredient for skin creams used to mature and dry skin types (Anthony C.
et al., 2002). The steroid properties of tuberosum saponin have demonstrated
the use of Dioscorea floribunda and other potato species in the UK to combat
rheumatoid inflammation and pain (Anthony C. et al., 2002).

(Dioscorea
floribunda) extract on HER2-expressing tumors (Chiang, Way et al., 2007).
Potato sapogenin, produced by other members of the families Dioscorea
floribunda and Dioscoreacea, can be used as starting material for the
production of steroidal compounds such as cortisone, pregnenolone and progesterone
(Marker and Krueger 1940). Senescence is scientifically recognized in the
anti-aging preparations of Dioscorea floribunda (Liviero and Allec 2002) and
Anti-Wrinkle Treatment (Besne 2003) and Cosmetic Surgery (Eymard M, 2004) for
anti-aging and traditional treatment.

 

Another drug is Citrullus colocynthis
(Korhtumma). (Sangameswaran, Balakrishnan et al., 2008) examined their
hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. It has the potential for
treatment of human breast cancer (Tannin-Spitz, Grossman et al., 2007). The
antiparasitic effect of E. coli has been studied in domestic animals in
Pakistan (Farooq, Iqbal et al., 2008). Its extracts also show
anti-hyperglycemic effects that support the traditional use of E. coli as an
antidiabetic (Sangameswaran, Balakrishnan et al., 2008).

 

Certain
medical attributes are given to Ocimum sanctum  (Tulsi) (Sarkar et al., 1994). Infectious and
larvicidal acts are shown among the Tulsi products and the essential oils
against mosquitoes which have anti-malarial effects (Mohan et al., 2011)
(Prakash and Gupta, 2005).

Antifungal
activity is at St. Basil is also against Aspergillus Nigeria and his aquatic
extract, Tulsi, is found in patients with viral encephalitis (Prakash and
Gupta, 2005). Total plant decoction reduces levels of blood glucose (glucose)
levels and this is said to be controlling diabetes (Nagarajun et al., 1989). It
is recommended that Tulsi be reactive to dog lubricants (Late 1993),
Scorpionbid (Prakash and Gupta, 2005) and insect bites (Pandey and Anita 1990).
Tulsi plant leaves also show that adaptability, analgesic, antiocephaplus and
antioxidant in experimental animals (Khanna N, Bhatia J. 2003) have also been
found. Basil Naofa also has fertility effects (Khanna et al., 1986).

 

Endophytes:

Endophytes are present in microorganisms in the internal
tissues of living plants with no negative effects and different biological
properties of different diseases are shown. They are considered as potential
sources of novelty products, used in medicine, agriculture and industry to
modify more and more bioactive natural products from micro-organisms. (Guo et
al. 2011).

The link between fungi and plants started very early in
the evolution of terrestrial plants, and this association affected their evolution
(Suryanarayanan, 2017). Since the late 19th century, fungi have been found in
asymptomatic plant organs (eg Guerin, 1898). Plants are fungi that infect
plants without causing symptoms. The fungi belonging to this group are
ubiquitous and the plant species not associated with fungal endophytes are
unknown. In addition, endophytic fungi have great biological diversity and some
plant species differ from 100 endophytic fungi (Zabalgogeazcoa 2008).

 

Many can synthesize active biological compounds that plants
can use to protect human pathogens, and some of these compounds have proven to
be useful for new drug discoveries. Recent studies have shown hundreds of
natural products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids from
endophytes. To date, most of the endophile natural products are bioactive
compounds with various functions such as antibiotics, anti-cancer agents and
biological control agents. So far, they have not been thoroughly audited about
the nature of the treatment. Bioactive metabolites may only produce one
endophyte. Therefore, the role of endophytes in the production of new
structures for drug development is getting more attention. (Joseph and Priya,
2011).

 

 

Actinomycetes:

With more than 70 years Actinomycetales have been
recognized as an important source of bioactive natural compounds. From around
18,000 bacteric bioactive compounds identified, more than 10,000 bacteria
reported the genus Actinomyces (Berdy et al., 2012).

Actinomycetes is a good source of non-active non-active
carbide and can be used as a potential drug candidate to develop antibiotics.
Many antibiotics are well known, such as tetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin
and streptomycin, from the secondary metabolism of actinomycetes. In addition
to antibiotics, other types of bacteria are reactive immune agents, resistant
agents of doxorubicin and bleomycin, avermectin avermectin and antifungal
Compound Nystatin (Weber et al., 2015).

These periodic producers are occasional
procedures that occasionally produce various metabolites from Streptomyces.
Most of the actinomycetes that produce rare and active antibiotic antibiotics
are rare, such as those that produce dynamic proteins and those that produce
actinomycetes maduratia. (Matsumoto and Takahashi, 2017).

One of the
most significant sources of antibiotics and other bioactive substances is the
high value value of the actinomycetes. It represents two thirds of the total
amount of antibiotics known out of this Gram-positive branching spor with the
filamentous inflamous bacterial microflora mycobacteria. In actinomycetes,
Streptomyces spp. The most commonly used source of all types of antibiotics.
Along with the production of antibiotics, another important element of actinomycetes
that has been studied is their ability to degradate lignin – the most
complicated bipolar. Woodin bio degradation is considered a significant
phenomenon because it plays a key role in the carbon cycle (Ahmad et al.,
2016).

 

Endophytic
actinomycetes:

The microbes that are acting at endophytic metabolic
symptoms live in healthy tissues of living plants without clinically detected
disease symptoms and can be separate from the plant tissues that have the
sterilization surface (Nimnoi and Pipslip, 2009). Actinomycetes activities have
regard to the activities of new bioactive natural compounds that could be used
as new drugs where those with pathogenic resistance are obesity with rapidly
acquired resistance. (Gangwar et al 2014).

One of the most active and most active antibiotic sources
of antibiotics and other biological active substances is of high commercial
value. The cultural diversity of endophytic activity activities related to
tropical, native plants is not well researched. Actinomycetes microbiologist
activity has not been inactive, but in recent years it has been found to be an
effective producer of antibiotics and new lead compounds to develop new
medicines. Many secondary metabolites have been made available especially to
them, not only that they are useful for plants but also have economic
importance for people (Kumar and Jadeja, 2017).

Endophytic microbes have been identified as fungi and
bacteria, including actinomycetes (Strobel and Daisy 2003). The aerobic
actinomycetes, gram-positive, spray containing mutual and mutual bacteria, are
secondary in metabolites and enzyme production (Masand et al 2015).

These actuates about mutual associations with unique
planting plant species can produce metabolites that can be used as numerous
antimicrobial (Yan et al. 2010; Yang et al. 2015; Igarashi et al. 2011; Djinni
et al. 2014), resistant compounds (Yu et al 2011; Savi et al. 2015),
antidiabetics (Akshatha et al. 2014), bio-functioning agents (Li et al. 2014)
and plant growth promoters (Shutsrirung et al. 2013).

 

 

 

Endophytic
actinomycetes of Medicinal plants:

 

         Plant specie

    Actinomycete
taxa
 

           References

Azadirachta indica
 

Streptomyces,
Streptosporangium,
Microbispora,
Streptoverticillium,
Saccharomonospora,
Nocardia

Verma
et al. (2009)
 

A. barbadensis Mill.

Streptomyces
albosporus

Gangwar et al. 2014

Elaeagnus angustifolia
Alpinia galangal
 

Micromonospora
sp.
Streptomyces,
Nocardia, Microbispora,
Micromonospora

Chen
et al. 2011
Taechowisan
et al. (2008)
 

Curcuma phaeocaulis
 

Streptomyces
phytohabitans
 

Bian
et al. (2012a)
 

Parthenium
hysterophorus L.

Streptomyces
sp.

Tanvir et al
2013

Maytenus
hookeri.

Streptomyces
sp.

Kumar and Jadeja
2016

 

Bioactivities
of Medicinal Plants:

Actinomycetes as
source of biologically active metabolite

Actinomycetes are
of the subject of great interest to scientists and industrialists due to their
potential for the production of practical products such as antibiotics and
enzymes. Many economically important actinomycetes are known to produce an
array of biologically active substances, such as antibiotics, vitamins and
enzymes (Mccarthy and Williams, 1992).

Antitumor
activity:

Many natural
products from plants, microorganisms, and marine sources were identified as
anticancer agents. Some examples of the potential of endophytic actinomycetes
on the production of anticancer agents are reviewed. Paclitaxel is an
antimicrotubule drug used for the treatment of ovarian and metastatic breast
cancer. Food and Drug Administration has approved Taxol for the treatment of
advanced breast cancer, lung cancer, and refractory ovarian cancer (Kumar and
Jadeja 2016).

lupinacidin C is a
new anthraquinone derivative antibiotics isolated from the endophytic
actinomycete Micromonospora lupini. Lupinacidin C exhibited the most
potent inhibitory effects among the congeners on the invasion of murine colon
carcinoma cells into the reconstituted basement membrane (Igarashi et al. 2011).

Ansamitocin is a
group of ansamycin antibiotics show potent antitumour activity. Ansamitocin was
isolated from endophytic actinomycetes Nocardiasp. No. C-15003 (N-l).
Structures of ansamitocin were found to be similar to maytansine and related
maytansinoids which shows strong cytotoxic and antineoplastic activities (Eiji et al. 1977).

Against
nosocomial pathogens:

A varied number of
endophytic Streptomyces strains were recovered from different tissues of
P. hysterophorus. Majority of the strains exhibited significant
antimicrobial activity against nosocomial pathogens. (Tanvir et al 2013).

Antibacterial
activity:

Actinomycetes have
antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. They produce antibiotics,
herbicides, pesticides and enzymes like cellulose and xylanase used in waste
water treatment. They contain enzymes such as lecithinase, lipase and nitrate
reductase, H2S production, amylase, gelatinase, DNase and urease. (Ahmed et al
2016).

 

 

 

Anti-MRSA
activity:

The increasing
resistance to known antibiotics developed by bacterial pathogens is one of the
greatest threats to human health worldwide. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections
have received much attention and are still a major cause of death.

(Martín et al 2012).  Strains
of Arthrobacter isolattef from
produce kocurin which is potent anti-MRSA compound (Palomo et al 2013).

 

Antiviral
metabolites:

Some endophytic
actinomycetes also possess the ability to inhibit harmful viruses. An
endophytic Jishengella endophytica strain 161111 isolated from the root of the
mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum shows antiviral activity.

Antimycotic
activity:

Saadamycin is an
antimycotic compound isolated from endophytic actinomycetes Streptomyces sp.
Hedaya48. This strain exhibited significant antimycotic activity against
dermatophytes and other clinical fungi (El-Gendy et al. 2010).

Larvicidal and
antimalarial activity

Streptomyces albovinaceus and S. badius isolated
from plants of family Asteraceae were also found to have
significant larvicidal potential against first and fourth instar stages
of Culexquinquefasciatus (mosquito larvae).They illustrated
strong larvicidal activity (80–100 % mortality) of six isolates while four
isolates showed potent larvicidal activity (100 % mortality) at the fourth
instar stage. (Golinska
et al 2015).    

Conclusion:

Bioactive natural
compounds produced by endophytic actinomycetes have been promising potential
usefulness in safety and human health concerns, although there is still a
significant demand of drug industry for synthetic products due to economic and
time-consuming reasons (Kumar and Jadeja 2016). We decided to focus attention on endophytes as a prospective new
source of novel microbes because the actinomycetes of endophytic plant have confirmed
to be significantly different from those found in soil
environments. 

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