School Papers

Vaccine published in 2013 found no correlation between


Vaccine overload is the term used when the vaccine may cause effect
such as overwhelm or weaken a child’s immature immune system after they were given
the vaccination which its objective is to prevent from infection and lead to
adverse effects. Despite scientific evidence that strongly contradicts this
idea, some parents of autistic children believe that vaccine overload causes
autism. The resulting controversy has caused many parents to delay or avoid
immunizing their children. Such parental misperceptions are major obstacles
towards immunization of children.

With the increase in the number of vaccines over recent decades,
improvements in vaccine design have reduced the immunologic load from vaccines.
The total number of immunological components in the 14 vaccines administered to
US children in 2009 is less than 10% of what it was in the 7 vaccines given in
1980. A study published in 2013 found no correlation between autism and the antigen
number in the vaccines the children were administered up to the age of two. Of
the 1,008 children in the study, one quarter of those diagnosed with autism
were born between 1994 and 1999, when the routine vaccine schedule could
contain more than 3,000 antigens (in a single shot of DTP vaccine).
The vaccine schedule in 2012 contains several more vaccines, but the number of antigens
the child is exposed to by the age of two is 315. Vaccines pose a very small
immunologic load compared to the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in
a typical year; common childhood conditions such as fevers and middle-ear
infections pose a much greater challenge to the immune system than
vaccines, and studies have shown that vaccinations, even multiple concurrent
vaccinations, do not weaken the immune system or compromise overall immunity.
The insufficient of the evidence which supports the vaccine overload hypothesis,
combined with these findings, has led to the sum up that currently recommended
vaccine programs do not cause “overload” or weaken the immune system.

Any experiment based on withholding vaccines from children has
been considered unethical, and observational studies would likely be confounded
by differences in the health care-seeking behaviours of under-vaccinated
children. Thus, no study directly comparing rates of autism in vaccinated and
unvaccinated children has been done. However, the concept of vaccine overload
is biologically not seeming reasonable or acceptable. The vaccinated and
unvaccinated children have the same immune response to non-vaccine-related
infections, and autism is not an immune-mediated disease, so it is claimed that
vaccines could cause it by overloading the immune system is against current
knowledge of the pathogenesis of autism. So, the idea that
vaccines can cause autism has been effectively eliminated by the weight of
current evidence.





Prenatal Infection

is evidence that schizophrenia is associated with prenatal
exposure to rubella,
and toxoplasmosis
infection. For example, a study found an increased risk of schizophrenia when
mothers were exposed to influenza in the first trimester of gestation. This may
have public health implications, as strategies for preventing infection include
vaccination, simple hygiene, and, in the case of toxoplasmosis, antibiotics.
Based on studies in animal models, theoretical concerns have been raised about
a possible link between maternal immune response activated by virus antigens and
schizophrenia. A review done in 2009 concluded that there was insufficient
evidence recorded to recommend routine use of trivalent
influenza vaccine during the first trimester of pregnancy, but the
vaccine was still recommended other time from the first trimester and in
special or certain circumstances. It is recommended to have routine flu shots
for pregnant women (recommendation from the CDC’s (Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta)
Advisory Committee on Immunization
Practices, the American
College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Family Physicians),
for several reasons:

their risk
for serious influenza-related medical complications during the last two
greater rates for flu-related hospitalizations compared to non-pregnant
women;the possible
transfer of maternal anti-influenza antibodies to children, protecting the
children from the flu; andseveral
studies that found no harm to pregnant women or their children from the